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Monday, April 13, 2015

ഭാരതീയ - ഗ്രീക്ക് ദർശനങ്ങളിലെ സാമ്യങ്ങൾ

]ucmWnI temI¯v \ne\n¶ncp¶ hnhn[ X¯zÚm\ [mcIsf ]än IqSpX ]T\§fpw KthjW§fpw \S¶ ImeL«amWv ACE 1800 apXÂ. Fs¶t¶bv¡pambn \ãs¸s«¶p IcpXnb ZmÀi\nI IrXnIÄ C¡me¯p I­pIn«pIbpw, Ah IqSpX hnÚm\ IpXpInIsf X¯zÚm\ taJebnte¡p BIÀjn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. {ItaW X¯zÚm\ ]T\w temI¯nsâ hnhn[ `mK§fn \ne\n¶ncp¶ ZÀi\§sf ]ckv]cw XmcXayw sN¿p¶Xnte¡p hfÀ¶p. C´y-No\-Sn_äv F¶nhnS§fn {]Nmc¯nencp¶ Ing¡³ ZÀi\§fpw, {Kokv-CuPn]vXv F¶nhnS§fnse ]Snªmd³' ZÀi\§fpamWv C¯cw XmcXay ]T\§fn {]apJØm\w Ae¦cn¨ncp¶h. ssN\okvSn_ä³ ZÀi\§fn _p²aXw hgn `mcXob ZÀi\w I\¯ kzm[o\w sNep¯nbncp¶Xn\mepw, ]ucmWnI Imes¯ ]Snªmd³ ZÀi\§fpsS tI{µw {Kokv Bbncp¶Xn\mepw, X¯zÚm\ XmcXay ]T\§Ä ]et¸mgpw C´y³{Ko¡v XmcXayambn hnh£n¡s¸«p. `mcXob ZÀi\§fpw {Ko¡v ZÀi\§fpw X½nepÅ \nch[n kmay§Ä ZmÀi\nI ]WvVnX·mcpsS {i²bn s]Sp¶Xv C¯csamcp kmlNcy¯nemWv.

`mcXob ZÀi\§fpsS Bcw`w D]\nj¯nemsW¶p[1] IcpXnbm AhbpsS Imew, IpdªXv, BCE c­vaq¶v kl{kmЧfnemsW¶p XoÀ¨s¸Sp¯mw[2]. {Ko¡v ZÀi\§fpsS Imew BCE H¶mw kl{kmЯnemsW¶Xv kphnZnXamWv. ImeKW\bnepw `qanimkv{X]cambpw DÅ A´cw ]cnKWn¨v, ]Xns\«v]s¯m¼Xv \qäm­pIfnse ZmÀi\nI ]WvVnXÀ hmZn¨p sIm­ncp¶Xv `mcXob{Ko¡v ZÀi\§Ä X½n kmayw Ds­¦nepw, Ahbv¡nSbn Hcp Bibhn\nab _Ôanà F¶mWv. 'Early Greek Philosophy' F¶ {KÙ¯n {]apJ {Ko¡v ^ntemk^n ]WvVnX\mb tPm¬ _ÀWäv (John Burnet) C¡mcyw hyàambn ]dbp¶p­v.

F¶ncp¶mepw {]apJ HmÀ^nIv kn²m´§Ä IqSpX {]mNo\amsW¶p \ap¡dnbmw. HmÀ^nIv tÇmI§Ä tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pÅ kzÀW^eI§Ä sX¡³ Cäenbn \n¶p e`n¨n«p­v. \mw NÀ¨ sN¿p¶ ImeL«¯n\p tijamWv ChbpsS Imesa¦nepw, HmÀ^nIv hnizmkw A¶p kPohambn \ne\n¶ncp¶p. Hcp hnizmksa¶ \nebn HmÀ^nIv A\pbmbnIÄ ]peÀ¯nt¸m¶ kn²m´§Ä¡p, GItZiw AtX Ime¯p, C´ybn \ne\n¶ncp¶ hnizmk [mcIfpambn A]mckmayw D­v. F¶m A¡me¯p C´ybpw {Kokpw X½n GsX¦nepw hn[¯n ]ckv]cw _Ôs¸«ncps¶¶p IcpXpI km[yaà HmÀ^n¡pIfpsS BNmc§Ä hnizmknbpsS Bßmhns\ ]m]tamNnXam¡n ip²am¡m\pw, AXphgn P\\-acW ]c¼cbnÂ\n¶p hnizmkn¡p c£ t\Sm\pw Ahkcsamcp¡p¶p. Cu e£yw km£mXvImcn¡m\mWv HmÀ^nIv hnizmknIÄ Hcp kaqlambn kÖoIcn¡s¸«ncn¡p¶Xv.

ss]XtKmdkv ]p\ÀP· kn²m´¯nsâ {]NmcI\mbncp¶p F¶Xv XÀ¡aä ImcyamWv\mKcnIÀ AÃm¯ P\XIfn ]p\ÀP· hnizmk¯n\p H¸w, Nne {]hr¯nIÄ sN¿p¶Xn\p hne¡pIfpw \nehnep­mIpw. ss]XtKmdkv CtXhn[apÅ hne¡pIÄ ]men¨ncp¶ hyànbmbncp¶p. AXv kphnZnXamWv]ucmWnI C´ybn A£cmÀ°¯n CXpt]msebpÅ BNmc coXnIfpw hnizmk§fpw \ne\n¶ncp¶Xmbn \ap¡dnbmw. F¶m C´ybn \n¶p Cu BNmccoXnIÄ {Ko¡pImÀ ISsaSp¯Xmbn sXfnbn¡p¶ hkvXpXIÄ \nehn CÃ. `mcXob{Ko¡v Nn´IÄ X½nepÅ Cu kmay§sf hniZoIcn¡phm³ Gähpw DNnXamb amÀKw, Cu c­p ZÀi\ imJIfpw Htcsbmcp BZna DdhnS¯n \n¶p DÂ`hn¨ tijw, kzX{´amb coXnbn hymJym\n¨p hnIkn¡s¸«p F¶XmWv. temI¯v ]ebnS¯pw CXpt]mepÅ ]ckv]c kmay§Ä \nehnep­v. F¶m C´ybnepw {Koknepw am{XamWv CXv hfsctbsd hy]vXnbn sXfnªp ImWmhp¶Xv.[3]

tPm¬ _ÀWäv Cu {KÙw FgpXnbXv Ccp]Xmw \qäm­nsâ Bcw`ZibnemWv. AXn\ptijw Imcy§Ä amdnbn«p­v. ]pXnb ]T\§Ä sXfnbn¡p¶Xv `mcXhpw ]ucmWnI {Kokpw X½n t]Àjy³ km{amPyw CS\nebmbn«pÅ Bibhn\nab D]m[nIÄ \nehnep­mbncp¶p F¶mWv[4]. IqSmsX Ccp ZÀi\ hn`mK§fptSbpw DdhnSw H¶p Xs¶bmsW¶ hmZhpw CXn\nSbn DbÀ¶p h¶n«p­v[5]. {Ko¡v ZmÀi\nIÀ X§fpsS Nne kn²m´§fn sshtZinIkzm[o\w Ds­¶p k½Xn¨n«p­v. F¦nepw ]qÀWamb Hcp ISsaSp¡tem `oaamb kzm[o\tam \S¶Xmbn {]kvXmhn¨n«nÃm¯Xn\m Htc DdhnS¯n \n¶mWv `mcXob{Ko¡v ZÀi\§Ä DbÀ¶p h¶sX¶ hmZw XÅn¡fbm\mInÃ. CXnsâsbÃmw ASnØm\¯n thWw Ccphn`mK§fnepapÅ kmay§sf t\m¡n¡mtW­Xv.

ASnØm\ aqeLSI§Ä (]©`qX§Ä):-

{]IrXnbnse ASnØm\ aqeLSI§sf (First Principles) ]än `mcXob{Ko¡v ZmÀi\nIÀ kn²m´n¡p¶p­v. ]rYzn (Earth), Pew (Water), hmbp (Air), AKv\n (Fire), BImiw (Space) F¶nhbmWv Cu aqeLSI§Ä. Chsb ]än `mcXob{Ko¡v ZÀi\§fnepÅ hnhcW§Ä Gsd¡psd kZriyamWv. ]ucmWnI `mcX¯nse {]_e km{amPyambncp¶ aucy km{amPy¯nsâ Øm]I³ N{µKp]vX aucysâ cmPk`bn {Ko¡v Aw_mkUdmbncp¶ saKkvX\kv, C´ysb¡pdn¨pÅ At±l¯nsâ ]pkvXI¯nÂ, At¶ Xs¶, Cu kmay§sf Ipdn¨v kqNn¸n¡p¶p­v.

]e Imcy§fnepw `mcXobcpsS A`n{]mb§Ä {Ko¡pImcptSXpambn H¯pt]mIp¶XmWv. temI¯n\p Bcw`ap­v, temIw A\izcaÃ, temI¯n\p tKmfmIrXnbmWv, temI krãmhv temIs¯ ]cn]men¨psIm­v temI¯n \naKv\ambncn¡p¶p., XpS§nb kn²m´§Ä {Ko¡v kn²m´§fpambn tbmPn¨p t]mIp¶p. {]]©¯n GXm\pw aqeLSI§Ä Ds­¶pw Pe¯n\p AXn {]apJ Øm\aps­¶pw `mcXobÀ ]dbp¶p. \mep aqeLSI§sf IqSmsX 'BImiw' F¶ A©masXmcp aqeLSIs¯ kzÀK¯ntâbpw \£{X§fptSbpw DdhnSambn AhÀ IW¡m¡p¶p. {]]©¯nsâ tI{µw `qanbmWv. BßX¯z§Ä DÄs¸sSbpÅ `mcXobcpsS hnhn[ kn²m´§Ä {Ko¡pImcptSXn\p kaamWv. A\izcXtbbpw, ]p\ÀP·t¯bpw Ipdn¨pÅ AhcpsS hnizmk§Ä kw{Kln¨ncn¡p¶Xv t¹tämbpsS coXnbn BWv.[6]

saKkvX\knsâ hm¡pIsf A£cw{]Xn icnhbv¡p¶ ^e§fmWv `mcXob{Ko¡v ^ntemk^nIsf A]{KYn¡p¶ Hcp hyàn¡p e`n¡pI. aqeLSI§sf Ipdn¨pÅ XmcXay ]T\¯n D]\nj¯p¡Ä Hcp hi¯pw tXÂkv, slcm¢näkv, A\mIv-knsa\kv, ^ntemeukv XpS§nb {Ko¡v Nn´IÀ adphi¯pw AWn\nc¡p¶p.

Pew {Ko¡v ZÀi\¯nÂ:-

Hdm¡nÄ Hm^v sUÂ^nbpsS (Oracle of Delphi)[7] A`n{]mb{]Imcw {Koknse Gähpw _p²nam\mb Nn´I³ anteäknse[8] tXÂkv[9] BWv. temI¯nepÅ FÃm¯ntâbpw ASnØm\ LSIw PeamsW¶p {Kokn kn²m´n¨Xv At±lamWv.

temI¯nsâ B{ibw Pew BWv, Pe¯n Hcp I¸se¶ t]mse temIw k©cn¡p¶p, Pe{]hml¯nse A{]Xo£nX Hgp¡v aqew temIw hndbv¡p¶XmWv `qI¼w., Fs¶Ãmw tXÂkv ]dbp¶p.[10]

Pes¯ ]änbpÅ tXÂknsâ A`n{]mbw AcntÌm«nepw FSp¯p ]dªn«p­v.

“… F¶ncp¶mepw F{X aqeLSI§Ä D­v, AhbpsS kz`mhsa´v F¶o hnjb§fn AhÀ¡nSbn hntbmPn¸p­v. C¯cw ZmÀi\nI Nn´bpsS Øm]I\mb tXÂknsâ A`n{]mb¯n PeamWv aqeLSIw. (AXn\memWv `qanbpsS B{ibw PeamsW¶v At±lw {]kvXmhn¨Xv).[11]

H«pan¡ BZna kwkvIrXnIfnepapÅ Ggv almEjnamÀ (Seven Sages) F¶ ]Zhn {Koknepw D­mbncp¶p. tXÂkv Chcn HcmfmWv. D]\nj¯nse t]mse FÃmw ssZhnIamWv[12] F¶ Bibw tXÂkv ]peÀ¯p¶Xmbn 'On the Souls' F¶ IrXnbn AcntÌm«n tcJs¸Sp¯p¶p[13]. {]]©¯nepÅ FÃmw Xs¶ GsX¦nepw hn[¯n Pohs\ DÄs¡mÅp¶p F¶ \ne]mSpw (Hylozoism) tXÂkn\p D­mbncp¶p. `mcXob ZÀi\¯n Cu \ne]mSv FSp¯hÀ ssP\ ZmÀi\nIcmWv.

Pew `mcXob ZÀi\¯nÂ:-

FÃm¯ntâbpw DdhnSambn _rlZmcWyI D]\nj¯v Pes¯ IW¡m¡p¶p.

CXv (hymIrXamb PKXv) BZyw Pew am{Xambncp\p. B Pew kXys¯ krãn¨p. kXyw {_ÒamWv. {_Òw {]Pm]Xntbbpw (hncmSv), {]Pm]Xn tZh·mtcbpw krãn¨p. B tZh·mÀ kXys¯ Xs¶ D]mkn¡p¶p.[14]

CtX Bibw aäp D]\nj¯pIfnepw Gsd¡psd Hcpt]mse BhÀ¯n¡s¸«n«p­v. BZnthZamb EtKzZ¯nepw CXv {]Xn]mZn¸n¡s¸«ncn¡p¶p.

{]fbIme¯v Ak¯v CÃmbncp¶p. k¯pw CÃmbncp¶p. BImi`qanIfpw CÃmbncp¶p. BImiØnX§fmb k]vXtemI§fpw CÃmbncp¶p. At¸mÄ BcnhnsS hkn¨ncp¶p. {_ÒmWvVw FhnsSbmbncp¶p. Kw`ocamb Pew FhnsSbmbncp¶p.[15]

ChnsS Pes¯ ]cmaÀin¡pI hgn BZyap­mb aqeLSIw PeamsW¶p hcp¶p.

hmbp {Ko¡v ZÀi\¯nÂ:-

hmbphmWv ASnØm\ LSIsa¶v {Ko¡v ZÀi\¯n kn²m´n¨Xv A\mIvknsa\kv BWv. tXÂkns\ t]mse At±lhpw anteäkv \Kchmknbmbncp¶p.

anteäknse A\mIvknsa\kvFÃm hkvXp¡fptSbpw ASnØm\ LSIw H¶msW¶pw, AXv ]cnanXnIfnÃm¯XmsW¶pw kn²m´n¡p¶p. F¶m A\mIvknaâdnsâ kn²m´¯n\p hncp²ambn Cu ASnØm\LSIw \nÊoaw AÃ, adn¨v \nÝnXamsW¶p A\mIvknsa\kv ]dbp¶p. hmbp BWv Cu ASnØm\ LSIw. km{µXbv¡p A\pkcn¨v hmbp hnhn[ cq]¯nepÅ hkvXp¡fmbn amdp¶p. hmbp hnIkn¡pt¼mÄ AKv\nbmbpw, kt¦mNn¡pt¼mÄ BZyw Imämbpw, ]ns¶ taLw, Pew, ]rYzn, Jc]ZmÀ°§Ä, F¶n§s\[16]

D]\nj¯n {]Xn]mZn¡p¶ {_Òk¦ev]¯n\p A\pcq]ambn FÃmw hmbphn \n¶v D­mbn, FÃmw hmbphnte¡v XncnsI t]mIpw., F¶p A\mIvknsa\kv ]dbp¶p. a\pjycnse Bßmhv hmbp BWv, hmbphn\p ssZhnIXzap­v, tZhXIÄ DÂ`hn¨Xv hmbphn \n¶mWv., F¶o \ne]mSpIfpw At±l¯n\p­v. D]\nj¯nse {]mWkn²m´t¯mSp kZriyamb \ne]mSpIfmWv ta¸dªh.

hkvXp¡Ä FÃmw DÂ`hn¡p¶Xpw, \ioIcW tijw hnebn¡p¶Xpw hmbphn BbXn\mÂ, hmbphmWv FÃm hkvXp¡fptSbpw ASnØm\ LSIw. Bßmhmb hmbphmWv \½nse {]hÀ¯\§sf th­hn[w \nb{´n¡p¶sX¶pw A\mIvknsa\kv ]dbp¶p[17]

hmbp Hcp ssZhamsW¶pw, A\mZnbÃm¯, FÃmbnS¯pw hym]n¨ncn¡p¶ AXv Ft¸mgpw Ne\mßIamsW¶pw A\mIvknsa\kv A`n{]mbs¸Sp¶p.[18]

FÃm hkvXp¡fptSbpw ImcWambn A\mIvknsa\kv hmbphns\ IW¡m¡p¶p. AtXkabw At±lw ssZh§fpsS BØnXzs¯ \ntj[n¡p¶panÃ. hmbp ssZh§fm krãn¡s¸«Xsöpw, adn¨v ssZh§Ä hmbphn \n¶v DbnÀsIm­XmsW¶pw At±lw IcpXp¶p.[19]

hmbp `mcXob ZÀi\¯nÂ:-

hfsc ]g¡apÅ NmtµmKy D]\nj¯n hmbphns\ ASnØm\ LSIambn ]cnKWn¡p¶p­v. iq{ZcmPmhmb P\{ipXnbpw sscIz ap\nbpw X½nepÅ kw`mjWamWv ]Ým¯ew.[20]

tl iq{Z, \o ]ip¡tfbpw aäpw sIm­ph¶Xv D¯aw Bbn. \ÃXv. Rm³ FÃm¯nt\bpw kzoIcn¡p¶p. Cu I\yI hnZymZm\¯n\p D¯abmWv. ChÀ \nan¯w \o Fs¶ kwkmcn¡m³ t{]cn¸n¡p¶p. F´pamIs« \ns¶ Rm³ injy\mbn kzoIcn¨ncn¡p¶p. ip` aplqÀ¯¯n \n\¡p D]tZiw \ÂIp¶XmWv……

D]tZi¯n\p Imeamsb¶p tXm¶nbt¸mÄ sscIz ap\n im´`mh¯n P\{ipXnsb AcnIn hnfn¨p.

]pWymßmth, A¶Zm\w sN¿p¶hs\¶ A`nam\hpw cmPmsh¶ Al´bpw Xm¦Ä¡p Ct¸mgnÃ. cPkvXtamKpW§Ä sI«S§nb \n§Ä kwhÀ¤hnZybv¡p A[nImcnbmbncn¡p¶p. \n§Ä¡nt¸mÄ H¶nepw ZpxJw ImWp¶nÃ. AXn\m iq{ZXzhpanÃ. Fsâ D]mk\ Rm³ \n§Ä¡p D]tZin¨p Xcmw. kanXv]mWnbmbn h¶ncp¶mepw.

ip`Zn\¯n ip{`hkv{X[mcnbpw kanXv]mWnbpambn P\{ipXn sscIz ap\nsb kao]n¨p. \akv¡cn¨n«v ASp¯ncp¶p. sscIz ap\n imkv{Xhn[n {]Imcw Btßm]tZiw sImSp¯p.

kwhÀ¤ hnZysb¶m FÃm¯nt\bpw {Kln¡p¶ hnZysb¶mWv AÀ°w. FÃm¯nt\bpw {Kln¡p¶Xv BßmhmWv. CXn\p tZh·mcpsS Iq«¯n hmbphnsâ Øm\hpw C{µnb§fn {]mWsâ Øm\hpamWv. A[nssZhX ZÀi\¯n hmbphmWv kwhÀ¤w. FÃm¯nt\bpw {Kln¡phm\pÅ tijn hmbphn\mWv DÅXv. hmbp hoipt¼mÄ AKv\n Bfn¡¯p¶Xv I­n«ntÃ? Xo AWbpt¼mÄ AXv hmbphn Xs¶ ebn¡p¶p. kqcy³ AkvXan¡pt¼mÄ AXp hmbphn Xs¶ ebn¡p¶p. N{µ³ AkvXan¡pt¼mÄ AXpw hmbphn ebn¡pw. shÅw häpt¼mÄ AXpw hmbphn tNcp¶p. CXv hmbphnsâ {]tXyIXbmWv.[21]

hmbp FÃm¯nt\bpw DÄs¡mÅp¶psh¶v ]dbpt¼mÄ FÃm¯ntâbpw DdhnShpw hmbp Xs¶bmsW¶v hcpw. D]\nj¯ns\ t]mepÅ {KÙkamlmc¯n imkv{X - X¯zÚm\ - Aßob Awi§Ä F{]Imcw CSIeÀ¶p InS¡p¶psh¶Xn\p ta¸dª hcnIÄ Zrãm´amWv[22].

EtKzZ¯n (A\mIvknsa\kv ]dbp¶ AtXt]mse) hmbphns\ ASnØm\ LSIambpw, ssZhambpw, ssZh§fpsS Pohiànbmbpw kqNn¸n¨n«p­v. Ft§m«p thWsa¦nepw Nen¡m\pÅ B´cnIiàn hmbphn\ps­¶pw ]dbp¶p.

BImi amÀ¤§fneqsS hcp¶ hmbp Hcp ZnhksamcnS¯pw \n¡p¶nÃ. Ft¸mgpw k©cn¡p¶p. Pe¯n\p N§mXnbpw FÃm¯nt\¡mfpw ap¼v Dfhmbh\pw kXyhm\pamb AhnSp¶v GXnS¯mWv P\n¨Xv? FhnsS \n¶mWv PK¯p apgph³ hym]n¡p¶Xv? Cu hmbp C{µmZn tZh·mÀ¡pw BßmhmIp¶p. (Pohcq]¯n Ahcn \n¡p¶Xp sIm­v) NcmNc§Ä¡p KÀ`w t]mse DÅn {]mWcq]¯n hÀ¯n¡p¶h\mIp¶p. Cu tZh³ Cãw t]mse Ncn¡p¶p. AhnSps¯ iÐ§Ä am{Xta tIÄ¡s¸Sp¶pÅq. cq]w ImWs¸Sp¶nÃ. B hmbphns\ Ncp]ptcmUmimZn lhnÊpsImt­ \mw ]cnNcn¡mhq.[23]

[Travelling on the paths of air's mid-region, no single day doth he take rest or slumber.
Holy and earliest-born, Friend of the waters, where did he spring and from what region came he?
Germ of the world, the Deities' vital spirit, this God moves ever as his will inclines him.
His voice is heard, his shape is ever viewless. Let us adore this Wind with our oblation.][24]

hmbphns\ ]änbpÅ Bib§Ä¡p `mcX¯n hfscb[nIw ]g¡aps­¶v EtKzZ kqà§Ä sXfnhp \ÂIp¶p.

AKv\n {Ko¡v ZÀi\¯nÂ:-

_mly-`uXnI temI¯pÅ FÃmw Ft¸mgpw amä§Ä¡p hnt[bambns¡m­ncn¡p¶p' F¶Xv Hcp D]\nj¯v X¯zamWv. \mw t\cn ImWpIbpw CSs]«p {]hÀ¯n¡pIbpw sN¿p¶ _mlytemIw A\p\nanjw amdns¡m­ncn¡p¶psh¶pw, _mlytemIs¯ FÃm hkvXp¡fpw AhbpsS \ne\n¸n\p aäp hkvXp¡sf B{ibn¨ncn¡p¶Xn\m Ahbvs¡Ãmw ]ckv]cm{inXamb Bt]£nI \ne\n¸v am{XtabpÅq F¶pw D]\nj¯v ]dbp¶p. {io_p²sâ A`n{]mb§Ä¡pw CtX BibKXnbmbncp¶p. {Ko¡v ZmÀi\nIcn slcm¢näkmWv Cu kn²m´w apt¶m«ph¨Xv. Htc \Znbnte¡v c­p XhW Cd§m³ ]änà F¶Xv At±l¯nsâ {]apJhN\w BWv. slcm¢näkntâXmb \nch[n {]mNo\ tcJIfn AKv\n¡p {]apJ Øm\ap­v[25].

Bßmhv AKv\nbmsW¶pw, AKv\nsb L\o`hn¸n¨m AXv PeamIpsa¶pw slcm¢näkv kn²m´n¨p. `mcXob ZÀi\§fnse t]mse, slcm¢näkv {]]©¯nsâ DÂ`hhpw \ioIcWhpw Hcp Nm{InI {]{Inbbmbn (Cyclic Process) \S¡psa¶v ]dbp¶p. ]p\ÀP·¯nepw At±l¯n\p hnizmkap­mbncp¶p.[26]

AKv\n `mcXob ZÀi\¯nÂ:-

ItTm]\nj¯n AKv\n {]]©¯n {]thin¨ tijw ]e cq]§Ä ssIs¡m­psh¶p ]dbp¶p­v. AKv\n Hcp ASnØm\ aqeLSIamsW¶Xnsâ kqN\bmWnXv. NmtµmKy D]\nj¯n ]cnWma {]{InbbpsS hnhn[ L«§Ä kqNn¸n¨n«p­v. {]]©¯nsâ BZyL« \nebn \n¶v (Primeval Being) BZyw ]cnWan¨p­mbXv AKv\nbmWv. AKv\nbn \n¶p Pehpw, Pe¯n \n¶p `qanbpw D­mbn F¶pw ]dbp¶p.

Where can be the root of that apart from being in food? In this very way, O good-looking one, through food which is the sprout, understand water as the root. O good looking one, through water which is the sprout, understand fire as the root. O good looking one, through fire which is the sprout, understand Existence as the root. O good-looking one, all these beings have Existence as their root. Existence is their abode. Existence is their place of merger.”[27]

slcm¢näknsâ Way up & Way down Bibw IrXyambn ta¸dª D]\nj¯v kqà¯n kqNnXamWv. kqà¯n sImSp¯ncn¡p¶ ]cnWma¯nsâ hnhn[ ZiIÄ {i²n¡pI:  Existence - FireWaterFood (Earth). At¸mÄ {]]© \ioIcW¯nsâ kab¯v ]rYzn Pe¯nepw, Pew AKv\nbnepw, AKv\n Existence/Primeval being-epw hnebn¡pw. C\n slcm¢näkv ]dbp¶Xv {i²n¡q.

As it is condensed fire becomes moist, and then as it is further compressed it becomes water, and as water solidifies it turns into earth, this is the 'road downward'. Then again earth dissolves and give rise to water, which is the source of everything else, since he attributes everything to the process of exhalation from the sea; this is the 'road upward'.”

atäXp {Ko¡v ZmÀi\nIt\¡mfpw A[nIw kmay§Ä slcm¢näknsâ kn²m´§Ä¡p D]\nj¯v Bib§fpambp­v. 'One is Many, and Many is one' F¶ Bib¯n ASnbpd¨ ZmÀi\nI\mbncp¶p slcm¢näkv.

]rYzn, BImiw F¶nh `mcXob - {Ko¡v ZÀi\§fnÂ:-

ASnØm\LSIs¯ ]änbpÅ BZykn²m´§fn ]rYzn¡p (Earth) {]apJØm\w D­mbncp¶p. FÃm PohPme§Ä¡pw B[mcambn hÀ¯n¡p¶ {]Yznsb ASnØm\ LSIambn ]cnKWn¡m³ DbÀ¶ \nebnepÅ Nn´mKXn A\nhmcyaÃ. slkntbmUnsâ (Hesiod) Imew apX ]rYzn Hcp ASnØm\LSIambn {Koknep­v. F¼tUm¢nkv (Empedocles) aäp aq¶v aqeLSI§Äs¡m¸w ]rYzntbbpw ASnØm\LSIambn IW¡m¡p¶p[28]. `mcXob sshZnI kmlnXy¯nÂ, ap­I D]\nj¯nepw aäpw Cu Bibw ]cmaÀin¡s¸«n«p­v.

BImi-s¯ (Space) ASnØm\ aqeLSIambn {Kokn AhXcn¸n¨Xv ss]XtKmdknsâ ]n³KmanIfn Hcmfmb t{Imt«mWnse ^ntemeukv (Philolaus of Croton) BWv.

The bodies (Physical Elements) of the Sphere are five: the Fire in the Sphere, and the Water, and Earth, and Air, and, fifth, the vehicle(?) of the Sphere.”[29]

NmtµmKy D]\nj¯nÂ, {]hlW Pohmen BImiw' ASnØm\ aqeLSIamsW¶p ]dbp¶p.

A\phmZw In«nbt¸mÄ imemhXy³ tNmZn¨p. "Cu temI¯n\p KXn F´mWv?

BImiw' F¶mbncp¶p {]hmlW PohmenbpsS D¯cw. Cu `qX§sfÃmw BImi¯n \n¶p Xs¶bmWv D­mIp¶Xv. BImi¯nte¡p AkvXan¡pIbpw sN¿p¶p. BImiw Xs¶bmWv Cu `qX§Ä DÄs¸sSbpÅ FÃm¯nt\¡mfpw al¯cambXv. BImiw ]caamb {]XnjvTbmIp¶p.[30]

["When Pravahana Jaivali was asked what was the final habitat of all things, he answered it was Space. ‘All these beings emerge from space and are finally absorbed in space; space is verily greater than any of these things; space is the final habitat’.]

`mcXob {Ko¡v ZÀi\§Ä¡p Hcp s]mXp DdhnSw Dt­m? 

ta¸dª hkvXpXIÄ (Cu teJ\¯nsâ ]cn[nbn hcm¯ aät\Iw kmay§fpw) kqNn¸n¡p¶Xv `mcXob{Ko¡v ZÀi\§Ä¡nSbn Hcp s]mXp Bibhn\nab[mc {]hÀ¯n¨n«ps­¶p Xs¶bmWv. t]Àjy³ km{amPyw CS\nebmbpÅ Bibhn\nab D]m[nIÄ \nehnencpXn\p \nch[n sXfnhpIfp­v[31]. Hcp C´y³ tbmKn {Kokn h¨v tkm{I«okpambn kw`mjW¯n GÀs¸«Xns\¡pdn¨v bqtk_nbkv FgpXnbXv Cu Ahkc¯n kvacWobamWv.

At¸mÄ kwKoXImc\mb AcntÌm-Ivsk\pkv, C¯cw \ne]mSv C´ybn \nmWv hsXp ]dªp; ImcWw Hcn¡Â C´ybn \nsmcp tbmKn tkm{I«okpambn GX³kn IqSn¡mgvN \S¯pIbp­mbn. B Ahkc¯n C´y³ tbmKn Xm¦Ä F´p hnjbamWv X¯zÚm\]cambn ]Tn¡pXv' Fp tkm{I«oknt\mSp tNmZn¨p. a\pjys\ ]änbmWv ]Tn¡pXpw kn²m´n¡pXpw' F tkm{I«oknsâ adp]Snbn C´y³ tbmKn Nncn¨p. ssZhnIambXns\ AdnbmsX am\pjnIambhsb Adnbm\mInÃ' Fp C´y³ tbmKn tkm{I«nknt\mSp adp]Snbmbn ]dªp.[32]

ssZhnIXzhpw a\pjyXzhpw hyXykvXaà F X¯zamWv C´y³ tbmKnbpsS adp]SnbpsS ImXÂ. Hdm¡nÄ Hm^v sUÂ^nbpsS IhmS¯n sIm¯nh¨ncp ‘Know thyself’ F hcn {]Xn^en¸n¡pXpw C´y³ tbmKnbpsS A`n{]mbw XsbmWv. ]ucmWnI `mcXhpw {Kokpw X½n X¯zÚm\ kw_Ônbmb Bibhn\nab _豈 \nehnep­mbncpXmbn Cu kw`mjWw sXfnhv Xcpp.

CXp IqSmsX CcpZÀi\§Ä¡pw Hcp s]mXp DdhnSap­v F¶ Bibhpw ]cnKW\mÀlamWv. Hu«v Hm^v C´ym Xnbdn-bpsS {]m[m\yw ChnsSbmWv[33]. hnhn[ C³tUm-bqtdm]y³ `mjmkaql§Ä ]©m_v-lcnbm\-_m{Înb F¶ t{]mt«m -C³tUm-bqtdm]y³ tlmwem³Un \n¶mWv AhcpsS C¶s¯ BhmkØet¯¡p ]memb\w sNbvXsX¦n {Ko¡pImÀ Gähpw Ahkm\w ]memb\w sNbvX kaqlamIpw. D]\nj¯v/thZnIv ImeL«¯n {Ko¡pImcpsS {]]nXmal·mÀ ]ucmWnI `mcX¯n D­mbncn¡psa¶p kmcw. hnhn[ C³tUm-Bcy³ kaql§Ä X½nepÅ BNmckw_Ônbmb Ielw aqew, {Ko¡pImcpsS ]qÀÆnIÀ `mcX¯n \n¶p ]mem-b\w sN¿p¶Xv thZnIv-D]\nj¯v Bib§fpw t]dns¡m­mIpsa¶Xv C¯c¯n kv]ãamWv. Hcp s]mXp DdhnS¯n \n¶mWv C´y³-{Ko¡v ^ntemk^nIÄ D­mbXv F¶ tPm¬ _ÀWänsâ hmZw ChnsS {it²bamWv. kmay§sf shdpw bmZrÝnItam atäm Bbn IcpXn At±lw XÅn¡fbpt¶bnÃ! kmay§Ä, XÅn¡fbm³ Ignbm¯{X iàamsW¶p Npcp¡w. Early Greek Philosophy-bn \n¶p tIzm«v sN¿p¶p:-

“In India we have a precisely similar doctrine, and yet it is not possible to assume any actual borrowing of Indian ideas at this date. The only explanation which will account for the facts is that the two systems were independently evolved from the same primitive ideas. These are found in many parts of the world; but it seems to have been only in India and in Greece that they were developed into an elaborate doctrine.”

`mcXob{Ko¡v Nn´IÄ Htc BZna DdhnS¯n \n¶p DÂ`hn¨ tijw, kzX{´amb coXnbn hymJym\n¨p hnIkn¡s¸«p F¶p tPm¬ _ÀWäv ]dbp¶p. Hcn¡Â _m{Înb-]©m_v/k]vXknÔp F¶ t{]mt«m C³tUm-bqtdm]y³ amXrtZi¡mcmbncp¶ {Ko¡pImÀ¡p X§fpsS X¯zNn´ Bib§fnepÅ thZnIv - D]\nj¯v Awi§Ä X§fptSXsöp tXmt¶­ Imcyansöp Npcp¡w! AXn\m Xs¶ `mcXob ZÀi\hpambpÅ kmay§Ä ISw sIm­XmsW¶p AhÀ kqNn¸n¨nÃ[34].




[1] thZ§Ä, {_mÒW§Ä, BcWyI§Ä F¶nhbpw X¯zÚm\ Nn´Ifm kar²amWv. cmaN{µ Z¯mt{Xb dm\sU, Fkv.sI s_Âhm¡À F¶o ]WvVnXÀ History of Indian Philosophy: The creative Period F¶ {KÙ¯n AhsbÃmw hniZoIcn¨n«p­v.
[2] thZnIv Bcy·mÀ `mcX¯nse Xt±ihmknIÄ Xs¶bmsW¶mWv BÀ¡ntbmfPn DÄs¸sSbpÅ ]e ]T\§fpw kqNn¸n¡p¶Xv. `mjmimkv{X {]ImcapÅ sXfnhpIÄ ku¯v djy, A\tämfnb³ (XpÀ¡n), C³tUm-_m{Înb³ DÄs¸sSbpÅ hnhn[ 'C³tUm-bqtdm]y³ amXrtZiw' kn²m´§sf km[qIcn¡p¶Xn\mbn hymJym\n¨v D]tbmKs¸Sp¯mhp¶XmWv. Hscmä amXrtZi kn²m´s¯bà `mjmimkv{X sXfnhpIÄ Nq­n¡mWn¡p¶Xv F¶À°w. `mjmimkv{X sXfnhpIÄ C{]Imcw At\ym\y hncp²amb amXrtZi kn²m´§sf ]n´m§p¶Xn\p D]tbmKs¸Sp¯msa¶Xn\mÂ, C³tUmbqtdm]y³ kwkvImc§fn Gähpw ]ucmWnIambXns\ amXrtZiambn ]cnKWn¡p¶XmWv DNnXa¶p hmZap­v, {]tXyIn¨pw knÔp-kckzXn \ZoXS§fnse BÀ¡ntbmfPn Bcy³ B{IaW/A[n\nthi kn²m´§sf \ncmIcn¨n«pÅXn\mÂ. IqSpX hmb\¡v:- Indo Aryan Origin and other Vedic issues, Nicolas Kazanas. kckzXn \ZoXS¯nse BÀ¡ntbmfPn¡Â sskäpIsf ]än Michel Danino-bpsS The Lost River: On the trail of Saraswati' F¶ ]pkvXI¯n hniZambn ]cmaÀin¡p¶p­v. Cu ]pkvXI¯nsâ aebmf ]cn`mjbmWv,kckzXn: \Zn HgpIpw hgn'.
[3] "”We do know, however, that the leading ideas of Orphicism were quite early. A number of thin gold plates with Orphic verses inscribed on them have been discovered in Southern Italy; and though these are somewhat later in date than the period with which we are dealing, they belong to the time when Orphicism was a living creed and not a fantastic revival. What can be made out from them as to the doctrine has a startling resemblance to the beliefs which were prevalent in India about the same time, though it seems impossible that there should have been any actual contact between India and Greece at this date. The main purpose of the Orgia (sacraments) was to 'purify' the believer's soul, and so enable it to escape from thewheel of birth’ and it was for the better attainment of this end that the Orphics were organized in communities.”

“…… In the first place, then, there can be no doubt that he (Pythagoras) really taught the doctrine of transmigrationamong savages, this belief is commonly associated with as system of taboos on certain kinds of food, and the Pythagorean rule is best known for its prescription of similar forms of abstinence…… In India we have a precisely similar doctrine, and yet it is not possible to assume any actual borrowing of Indian ideas at this date. The only explanation which will account for the facts is that the two systems were independently evolved from the same primitive ideas. These are found in many parts of the world; but it seems to have been only in India and in Greece that they were developed into an elaborate doctrine.”
--- Early Greek Philosophy, John Burnet.
[4] The Shape of Ancient thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies, Thomas McEvilley.
[5] {]apJ C´y³ C³tUmfPnÌv, {ioIm´v XetKcn, C³tUmbqtdm]y³ amXrtZiw ]ucmWnI Imes¯ _m{Înb]©m_v/k]vXknÔp {]hniybmsW¶p Rigveda and Avesta: The final evidence F¶ ]pkvXI¯n kaÀ°n¡p¶p. Cu Hu«v Hm^v C´y kn²m´{]Imcw hnhn[ C³tUm-bqtdm]y³ kaql§Ä/`mjIÄ _m{Înb ]©m_v {]tZi¯p \n¶v, B {]tZi¯p \ne\n¶ncp¶ kwLÀjØnXn aqew, C¶p ImWp¶ cmPy§fnte¡v ]memb\w hgn hym]n¡pIbmWp­mbXv. C{]Imcw Gähpw HSphn _m{Înb-]©m_v {]hniybn \n¶v ]pdt¯¡p ]memb\w sNbvXXv {Ko¡v{^nPnb³ hn`mKamsW¶p At±lw sXfnhpIÄ klnXw FgpXp¶p. t_mKkv Izbv' (Boghazkoi) BÀ¡ntbmfPn¡Â sskäpIfpw aäpw, _nknC c­v-aq¶v kl{kmЧfn a[y]qÀÆ Gjybnse Nne cmPy§Ä `cn¨ncp¶ C³tUm Bcy³ hwi§sf Ipdn¨pff hnhc§Ä \ÂIp¶p­v. lnänävkv (Hittites), Imsskävkv (Kassites), anäm\n (Mittani) F¶nhbmWv B C³tUmBcy³ hn`mK§Ä. C¯cw hnhc§Ä Hu«v Hm^v C´y kn²m´s¯ km[qIcn¡p¶p. Hu«v Hm^v C´y kn²m´{]Imcw D]\nj¯v ImeL«¯n ]n¡me {Ko¡pImcpsS ]qÀhnIÀ _m{Înb]©m_v {]hniybnepÅhcmbncn¡pw. D]\nj¯n\pw {]o--tkm{I«nIv {Ko¡v ZmÀi\nIÀ¡pw CSbnepÅ \nch[n kmay§Ä¡p ImcWw Cu klhmkamIm³ km[yXtbsdbmWv.

[6] “… Yet on many points their (Indians) opinions coincide with those of the Greeks, for like them they say that the world had a beginning, and is liable to destruction, and is in shape spherical, and that the Deity who made it, and who governs it, is diffused through all its parts. They hold that various first principles operate in the universe, and that water was the principle employed in the making of the world. In addition to the four elements there is a fifth agency, (Ether/Akasa) from which the heaven and the stars were produced. The earth is placed in the center of the universe. Concerning generation, and the nature of the soul, and many other subjects, they express views like those maintained by the Greeks. They wrap up their doctrines about immortality and future judgment, and kindred topics, in allegories, after the manner of Plato.”
--- Citing from Ancient India as described by Megasthanes and Arrian.
[7] Hdm¡nÄ Hm^v sUÂ^nbpsS IhmS¯n sIm¯nh¨ncn¡p¶Xv \ns¶ Xs¶ \o AdnbpI F¶p AÀ°w hcp¶ Know Thyself F¶ hcnbmWv. CXn\p D]\nj¯nse X¯zakn'bpambpÅ (Thou art that) kmayw {it²bamWv.
[8] anteäkn\p A¡mes¯ {]apJ kwkvImc§fmbncp¶ _m_ntemWnb, CuPn]vXv F¶nhbpambn hym]mc_Ôap­mbncp¶p. ]ucmWnI Ime¯p hmWnPyamÀK§fneqsS Hcp tZi¯v \ne\n¡p¶ X¯zÚm\imkv{X Bib§Ä aäp tZi§fnte¡p hym]cn¡p¶Xv kÀÆkm[mcWambncp¶p.
[9] Thales has Phoenician lineage. (Herodotus, Histories).
[10] Thales says that the world is held up by water and rides on it like a ship, and that what we call an earthquake happens when the earth rocks because of the movements of water.”
--- Seneca, Questions about Nature.
[11] … However they disagree about how many of such principles there are, and about what they are like. Thales, who was the founder of this kind of philosophy, says that water is the first principle (which is why he declared that the earth was on water)”              
--- Aristotle, Metaphysics. Another fragment about Thales-water connection is in his On the Heavens.
[12] kÀÆw Jep CZw {_Òw.
[13] “Some says that the universe is shot through with soul, which is perhaps why Thales too thought that all things were full of gods.” – Aristotle, On the Soul.
[14] In the beginning, verily, the waters alone existed; from the waters was born Satya or Truth; Satya produced Brahman, Brahman gave birth to Prajapati, and from Prajapati were born the gods; these gods worship Satya alone.”
-- Brihadaranyaka Upanishad V.5.1. (adn¨p {]kvXmhn¨n«nsænÂ, D]\nj¯nsâ FÃm aebmf XÀÖabpw Sreyas.in Hm¬sse³ UnPnä sse{_dnbnse ]pkvXI§fn \n¶mWv).

[15] “Then was not non-existent or existent; there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it.
What covered in, and where? And what gave shelter? Was water there, unfathomed depth of water?”
-- Rig-Veda: 10.129.1. (EtKzZw AÀ°klnXw: hn._meIrjvW³ & BÀ.eoemtZhn).
[16] Anaximenes of Miletus… shares his views that the underlying nature of things is single and infinite; however unlike Anaximender, Anaximenes’ underlying nature is not Boundless, but specific, since he says that it is Air, and claims that it is thanks to rarefaction and condensation that it manifests in different forms in different things. When dilated it becomes fire and when condensed it become first wind, then cloud and then… water, earth, stones, etc
--- Theophrastus/Simplicius on ‘Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics’.
[17] Air is the first principle of things, since it is the source of everything and everything is dissolved back into it. He says, soul, which is air, hold us together
 --- Aetius, Opinions.
[18] Next came Anaximenes, who claimed that air was a god, which has been created, was infinitely huge, and was always in motion.”
--- Cicero, On the nature of the Gods.
[19] “… He attributed all the causes of the things to infinite air, but he did not deny the existence of gods or have nothing to say about them; however he believed not that air was made by them, but that they emerged from air.”
--- Augustine, The city of Gods.
[20] Chandogya Upanishad. IV.3.1-2.
[21] Citing from Sreyas.in.
[22] hmbp hoipt¼mÄ Xo Bfn¡¯p¶p, Xo AWbpt¼mÄ AXv hmbphn ebn¡p¶p, kqcy³-N{µ³ F¶nh AkvXan¡pt¼mÄ hmbphnt\mSp tNcp¶p, Pew \ocmhnbmbn hmbphn ebn¡p¶p., F¶nhsbÃmw {]Xy£ {]amW¯neqsS e`n¡p¶ C³]p«pIsf bpàn]cambn hnebncp¯pt¼mÄ In«p¶ AdnhmWv. Hcp]t£ ]n¡me¯v, B[p\nI kt¦X§fpsS klm-b¯mÂ, Ah sXämsW¶p sXfnbn¡s¸t«¡mw. F¶m Nn´bptSbpw, Umä hniIe\¯ntâbpw Bcw`Znibn cq]oIcn¡s¸Sp¶ C¯cw kn²m´§Ä imkv{X¯nsâ Xs¶ Bcw`ZisbbmWv {]Xn\n[oIcn¡p¶Xv. AXv XoÀ¨bmWv. Htc Imcyw, `mcXobÀ sNbvXm Bßobhpw, {Ko¡pImÀ sNbvXm imkv{Xobhpw Bbn ]cnKWn¡s¸Sp¶Xv hneIpdª, ]£]mX]camb hniIe\ k{¼Zmb§fnte¡p hnc Nq­p¶p.
[23] Rig-Veda: 10.168.3-4. (EtKzZ `mjm`mjyw, HFwkn \¼qXncn¸mSv).
[24] Rig-Veda: Translation by Ralph T H Griffith.
[25] “It is wise for those who listen not to me but to the principle to agree in principle that everything is fire.”
-- Hippolytus, Refutation of all heresies.
 “This world which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made; but it was ever, is now, and ever shall be an ever-living Fire.”
“The transformations of Fire are, first of all, sea; and half of the sea is earth, half whirlwind.”
“All things are an exchange for Fire, and Fire for all things, even as wares for gold and gold for wares.”
“Fire in its advance will judge and convict all things.”
-- Citing from Early Greek Philosophy, John Burnet.
[26] Robin Waterfield, The First Philosophers: The Pre-Socratics and the Sophists.
[27] Chandogya Upanishad VI.8.4
[28] “I shall tell you of a double process. At one time it increased so as to be a single One out of Many; at another time it grew apart so as to be Many out of One—Fire and Water and Earth and the boundless height of Air, and also execrable Hate apart from these, of equal weight in all directions and Love in their midst, their equal in length and breadth.”
-- Ancilla to Pre-Socratics philosophers, Kathleen Freeman.
[29] Ancilla to Pre-socratics philosophers, Kathleen Freeman. ChnsS Vehicle F¶Xn\p km[mcWbmbn sImSp¡p¶ AÀ°w Space/Ether F¶mWv. `mcXob ZÀi\¯nse BImiw' F¶Xnt\mSp Cu AÀ°w tbmPn¡p¶p.
[30] Chandogya Upanishad. I. 9. 1
[31] The Shape of Ancient thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies, Thomas McEvilley.
[32] Eusebius of Caesarea: Praeparatio Evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel)’, Citing from The Shape of Ancient thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies, Thomas McEvilley.
[33] Rigveda: A Historical Analysis & Rigveda and Avesta: The final evidence, Srikant G Talageri. `mcXob{Ko¡v ^ntemk^nIÄ X½nepÅ kmayhpw, Hu«v Hm^v C´y Xnbdnbpw (Bcy³ A[n\nthi kn²m´¯n\p FXncmb Xnbdn) thÀs]Sp¯m\mIm¯ hn[w ]ckv]c_ÔnXamWv.
[34] c­p hkvXpXIÄ ChnsS kqNn¸nt¡­Xp­v. H¶v, t{]mt«m C³tUm-bqtdm]y³ amXrtZiw GsX¶ kn²m´§fn {Kokns\ amXrtZiambn ImWp¶ kn²m´§Ä CÃ. c­v, {Ko¡pImÀ AhÀ C¶p Xmakn¡p¶ `qanIbnte¡p ]pdta \n¶p h¶hcmsW¶p kqN\bp­v. Ahew_w - Indo Aryan Origin and other Vedic issues, Nicolas Kazanas. ASp¯bnsS kb³kv amKkn³, 'sFkvam³ HmSvkn'-tbbpw (Otzi, the Iceman) At±l¯nsâ icoc¯nepÅ helicobacter pylori’ _mÎocnbtbbpw Ipdn¨p {]kn²oIcn¨ teJ\w, a[y-sXt¡ Gjybn \n¶p bqtdm¸nte¡pÅ hnhn[ P\kaql§fpsS ]memb\s¯ km[qIcn¡p¶p­v. C´y DÄs¸sSbpÅ kmÀ¡v cmPy§fmWv sX¡³ Gjy. IqSpX hmb\¡v => http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6269/162

3 comments:

  1. നല്ലൊരു താരതമ്യപഠനം. നല്ലപോലെ റിസര്‍ച്ച് ചെയ്തിട്ടുണ്ടല്ലോ

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    1. കുറേക്കാലമായി വായന ഈ ഏരിയയിലാണ് അജിത്. അപ്പോൽ ചിലത് കുറിച്ചിടാമെന്നു കരുതി. കൂടുതൽ ലേഖനങ്ങൾ ഭാവിയിൽ പ്രതീക്ഷിക്കാം.

      നാട്ടിലെത്തുമ്പോൾ എന്റെ ബുക്കിന്റെ ഒരു കോപ്പി വാങ്ങി വായിക്കാനും താല്പര്യപ്പെടുന്നു. => http://www.flipkart.com/author/sunil-upasana

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  2. നല്ലൊരു ഗവേഷകനാണല്ലോ..
    പൂര്‍ണമായൊന്നും മനസ്സിലായില്ല..
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